There are many causes of cleft lip and palate. Problems with genes passed down from one or both parents, drugs, viruses, or other toxins can all cause these birth defects. Cleft lip and palate may occur along with other syndromes or birth defects. A cleft lip and palate can:
Syndactyly, the most common congenital hand anomaly, is an abnormal connection of fingers or toes to one another—the digits are “webbed,” and have failed to separate normally during development. It most commonly involves the middle and ring fingers. In about 50% of cases, both hands are involved. Syndactyly may occur alone, or with other anomalies as part of a syndrome.
Hypospadias repair is surgery to correct a defect in the opening of the penis that is present at birth. The urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) does not end at the tip of the penis. Instead, it ends on the underside of the penis.