What are the haemangioma/ birth mark?
Haemangioma is benign condition (noncancerous),
It is formed by an abnormally dense group of endothelial cells (the cells that normally line the blood vessels). The exact cause remains unknown.
It occurs in infants and more frequently in premature babies. Growth appear in the first two weeks of life, then enlarge rapidly in first year, then slowly regress, and usually fully regress by 5 to 7 years age, some residual fatty tissue or thin skin may remain after involution.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is defined as atherosclerosis that leads to arterial stenosis or occlusion of the major vessels supplying the extremities. PAD includes intermittent claudication (IC), critical limb ischaemia (CLI), and acute limb ischaemia (ALI). It is a progressive disease and many patients will require either endovascular intervention or peripheral vascular revascularization (PVR) surgery. We offer a number of different treatment options for restoring blood flow.
What are the vascular malformations?
Vascular malformations are abnormal vascular channels, benign (non-cancerous) lesions.
They are present at birth incidentally, but may not become visible for weeks or months after birth.
Unlike haemangioma, they continue to grow slowly throughout life.
What are some of the types of vascular malformation?
There are several types of vascular malformations:
Capillary (port wine stain) always presents at birth as pink or purple skin patches. Venous malformations are soft to the touch and the color disappears when compressed. They are most commonly found on the jaw, cheek, tongue and lips.
Lymphatic formed when excess fluid accumulates within the lymphatic vessels. Arteriovenous abnormal connections between arteries and veins, resulting in a high flow, pulsating collections of blood vessels. Sometimes a combination of any of the four types may occur.
How Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas look clinically?
Hemangiomas can be superficial or deep and most commonly have the following symptoms:
• Superficial hemangiomas appear as bright red, flat or raised patches on the skin
• Deep ones growing below the surface may not have an obvious outward appearance
• Both types are usually compressible to the touch
• They most often grow in the head or neck area, but they can involve any part of the body, including major organs
• Their size is variable and while most patients only have one lesion, multiple hemangiomas can occur
Vascular malformation symptoms are highly variable and depend on the type, size and location of the malformation. Symptoms may be absent altogether or life threatening if it’s an arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
What are diagnostic modalities to diagnose lesions?
Most hemangiomas are easily identified without any diagnostic testing. Deeper lesions may require MRI/ Ultrasound, sometimes CT.
How hemangiomas are managed?
Most hemangiomas are small and non-problematic and may not require treatment. But they need regular monitoring especially if it is obstructing vital structures such as eyes or throat, or if it bleeds.
The hemangiomas can be managed by
Steroid or other drugs
Embolization of the blood vessels (injection of material into the blood vessels to block the blood inflow)
How vascular malformations are managed?
For port wine stain (capillary malformation) laser therapy is usually recommended
Arterial malformations are often treated by embolization (blood flow into malformation is blocked by injecting material near the lesion) followed by with or without surgery
Venous malformations are usually treated by direct injection of a sclerosing (clotting) medication, which causes clotting of the channels
Most often, a combination of nonsurgical and surgical method is used for effective management of the vascular anomaly.
Varicose veins are gnarled, enlarged veins. Any vein may become varicose, but the veins most commonly affected are those in your legs and feet. That's because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.
For many people, varicose veins and spider veins — common, mild variations of varicose veins — are simply a cosmetic concern. For other people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. Sometimes varicose veins lead to more-serious problems.
Varicose veins may also signal a higher risk of other circulatory problems. Treatment may involve self-care measures or procedures by your doctor to close or remove veins.
Varicose veins may not cause any pain. Signs you may have with varicose veins include:
• Veins that are dark purple or blue in color
• Veins that appear twisted and bulging; often like cords on your legs
These factors increase your risk of developing varicose veins:
Standing or sitting for long periods of time.